General Site Information
Site_name:Howland Forest (main tower)
Tower_team:PI: David Hollinger - - USDA Forest Service
Affiliate: Aaron Teets - - University of Maine
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate_Koeppen:Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temp (degrees C):5.27
Mean Annual Precip. (mm):1070
Years Of Data Available:Ameriflux: 19 (Duration: 1996 - 2014)
FLUXNET: 9 (Duration: 1996 - 2004)
Description:Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.
Site image(s):
VE Cutouts:Max Zoom :: Mid 1 Zoom :: Mid 2 Zoom :: Min Zoom

Papers relevant to understanding the site
E. A. Davidson; K. Savage; L. V. Verchot; R. Navarro. 2002. Minimizing artifacts and biases in chamber-based measurements of soil respirationAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 21-37.Reference
A. D. Richardson; D. Y. Hollinger; G. G. Burba; K. J. Davis; L. B. Flanagan; G. G. Katul; J. W. Munger; D. M. Ricciuto; P. C. Stoy; A. E. Suyker; S. B. Verma; S. C. Wofsy. 2006. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 136:1-2, 1-18.Reference
X. M. Xiao; Q. Y. Zhang; D. Hollinger; J. Aber; B. Moore. 2005. Modeling gross primary production of an evergreen needleaf forest using modis and climate dataEcological Applications. 15:3, 954-969.Reference
X. M. Xiao; D. Hollinger; J . Aber; M. Goltz; E. A. Davidson; Q. Y. Zhang; B. Moore. 2004. Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in an evergreen needleleaf forestRemote Sensing of Environment. 89:4, 519-534.Reference
P. E. Thornton B. E. Law; H. L. Gholz; K. L. Clark; E. Falge; D. S. Ellsworth; A. H. Golstein; R. K. Monson; D. Hollinger; M. Falk; J. Chen; J. P. Sparks. 2002. Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forestsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 185-222.Reference
E. Falge; D. Baldocchi; J. Tenhunen; M. Aubinet; P. Bakwin; P. Berbigier; C. Bernhofer; G. Burba; R. Clement; K. J. Davis; J. A. Elbers; A. H. Goldstein; A. Grelle; A. Granier; J. Guomundsson; D. Hollinger; A. S. Kowalski; G. Katul; B. E. Law; Y. Malhi; T. Meyers; R. K. Monson; J. W. Munger; W. Oechel; K. T. Paw; K. Pilegaard; U. Rannik; C. Rebmann; A. Suyker; R. Valentini; K. Wilson; S. Wofsy. 2002. Seasonality of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production as derived from FLUXNET measurementsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 53-74.Reference
Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger. 2005. Statistical modeling of ecosystem respiration using eddy covariance data: Maximum likelihood parameter estimation, and Monte Carlo simulation of model and parameter uncertainty, applied to three simple modelsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:3-4, 191-208.Reference
Fernandez et al. 1993. Estimating total soil mass, nutrient content, and trace metals in soils under a low elevation spruce-fir forest. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 73, 317-328Reference
K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 29-70.Reference
Hollinger et al. 1999. Seasonal patterns and environmental control of carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in an ecotonal boreal forest. Global Change Biology, 5:891-902.Reference
C. T. Lai; J. R. Ehleringer; P. Tans; S. C. Wofsy; S. P. Urbanski; D. Y. Hollinger. 2004. Estimating photosynthetic C-13 discrimination in terrestrial CO2 exchange from canopy to regional scalesGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 18:1.Reference
E. A. Davidson; A. D. Richardson; K. E. Savage; D. Y. Hollinger. 2006. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forestGlobal Change Biology. 12:2, 230-239.Reference
Eric A. Davidson; Ivan A. Janssens; Yiqi Luo. 2006. On the variability of respiration in terrestrial ecosystems: moving beyond Q10Global Change Biology. 12:2, 154-164.Reference
E. A. Davidson; K. Savage; P. Bolstad; D. A. Clark; P. S. Curtis; D. S. Ellsworth; P. J. Hanson; B. E. Law; Y. Luo; K. S. Pregitzer; J. C. Randolph; D. Zak. 2002. Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurementsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 39-51.Reference
Hollinger et al. 2004. Spatial and temporal variability in forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Global Change Biology, 10:1689-1706.Reference
Daniel A. Sims; Abdullah F. Rahman; Vicente D. Cordova; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Allen H. Goldstein; David Y. Hollinger; Laurent Misson; Russell K. Monson; Hans P. Schmid. 2005. Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean fluxAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:1-2, 1-12.Reference
K. E. Savage; E. A. Davidson. 2001. Interannual variation of soil respiration in two New England forestsGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 15:2, 337-350.Reference
A. A. Arain; N. Restrepo-Coupe. 2005. Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern CanadaAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 223-241.Reference

Fluxnet Proposals Using this Site
Andrew JarvisA data-based cross-site evaluation of (optimal) carbon gain and water use strategies as expressed in FLUXNET eddy covariance dataJarvis;Stauch1st Draft ready
Darrel JeneretteVariation of ecosystem metabolic rain response along a 2000 mm rainfall gradientJenerette;Scott;Huxman1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriCalibration of a light use efficiency model using FLUXNET dataTomelleri;Reichstein;Papale;Gorner1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriClimatic effects on the inter‐annual variability of net ecosystem fluxes of North America and EuropeTomelleri; Migliavacca; Carvalhais1st Draft ready
Katrin FleischerEffects of nitrogen cycle dynamics on forest carbon exchange; evaluating a global dynamic vegetation model with FLUXNET dataFleischer; Warlind; van der Molen; Rebel; Arneth; Erisman; Wassen; Smith; Dolman1st Draft ready
Manish VermaUse of FLUXNET data product to evaluate productivity metrics derived from satellite remote sensingRichardson; Verma1st Draft ready
Wenping YuanGlobal Comparison of Light Use Efficiency Models for Vegetation Gross Primary ProductionYuan; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiDevelopment of a Physical-Empirical algorithm for global terrestrial latent heat flux based on FLUXNET data set and MODIS productsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiEvaluation of global terrestrial latent heat flux simulations of 45 CMIP5 models using global eddy covariance observationsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Bo JiangComparison of empirical models for surface daytime net radiation estimationJiang; Wohlfahrt; ZhangManuscript submitted
Eli MelaasUsing phenological indicators derived from FLUXNET data to improve predictive models of vegetation phenologyRichardson; Melaas; SonnentagPaper in press
Andrew RichardsonEffect of spring onset and autumn senescence date on forest-atmosphere CO2 exchangeRichardson;Piao;Ciais;BreonPaper published
Christian BeerUpscaling mean annual GPP from ecosystem level to the global land surfaceBeer; Tomelleri; Reichstein; Carvalhais; Jung; Papale; Peylin; CiaisPaper published
Christian BeerWhich environmental factors determine temporal and spatial variability of water-use efficiency on ecosystem levelBeer; Baldocchi; Bernhofer; Buchmann; Ciais; Knohl; Koestner; Kutsch; Reichstein; Soussana; WilliamsPaper published
Christopher WilliamsCarbon Dioxide and Water Flux Responses to Extreme Weather and Climate AnomaliesWilliams; Munger; Hollinger; Stoy; Richardson; Schaefer; Stockli; SchwalmPaper published
Chuixiang YiClimate control of terrestrial carbon sequestrationYi; Ricciuto; MonsonPaper published
Dennis BaldocchiHow Day and Night Sampling Minimizes Autocorrelation between Canopy Photosynthesis and Ecosystem RespirationBaldocchi; SturtevantPaper published
Gitta LasslopExtended hyperbolic light response curve including VPD effects to derive GPP estimates mainly based on daytime dataLasslop; Reichstein; PapalePaper published
Guillod BenoîtThe impact of evapotranspiration on convective rainfall eventsGuillod; Seneviratne; Buchmann; Orlowsky; Reichstein; Ciais; TeulingPaper published
Jingfeng XiaoLinking Disturbance and Nitrogen Availability to Carbon and Water Cycling: Improved Upscaling of Carbon and Water Fluxes from Towers to Continental and Global ScalesXiao; Ollinger; ChenPaper published
Katrin FleischerFeedbacks in the Climate SystemFleischer; Dolman; van der Molen; Rebel; ArnethPaper published
Martin JungIdentifying environmental and biophysical controls of monthly carbon and water fluxesJung; Reichstein; Papale; TomelleriPaper published
Miguel D. MahechaTime scale dependent parameter estimation: principle and example elaboration in an model-eddy covariance data fusion experimentMahecha; Reichstein; Carvalhais; Lasslop; Lange; SeneviratnePaper published
Mirco MigliavaccaSemi-empirical modelling of ecosystem respiration: review, improved algorithm and integration with Earth observation dataMigliavacca; Reichstein; Richardson; LasslopPaper published
Paul StoyEnergy balance closure at global eddy covariance research sites is related to landscape-level surface heterogeneityStoy; IbromPaper published
Philippe CiaisWhat the eddy-covariance flux measurements tell us about prior errors in CO2-flux inversion schemesChevallier; Ciais; Maignan; Wang; ReichsteinPaper published
Sonia SeneviratneMulti-scale land-atmosphere interactionsSeneviratne; Reichstein; Ciais; Buchmann; StockliPaper published
Timothy W. HiltonWhat is the spatial and temporal coherence of flux tower signalsHilton; Davis; Ciais; DesaiPaper published
Dario PapaleA new global spatialized estimate of NEP, GPP and TER and analysis of uncertainty and limiting factors using data driven models and eddy covariance measurementsPapale, Reichstein, TomelleriSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Jingfeng XiaoGlobal Patterns and Interannual Variability of Water Use EfficiencyXiao; ChenSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Miguel D. MahechaEffects of hydrometerorological extremes on land-atmosphere fluxesMahecha; Rammig; PapaleSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Alan BarrSynthesis of Inter-Annual Variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange at Long-Term North American Mature Boreal and North-Temperate Forest Flux-Tower SitesBarr;Black;Wofsy;Hollinger;Started with 1st overview and site selection
Andrew RichardsonExploring relationships among carbon exchange, foliar nitrogen, and canopy albedo at global scalesRichardson; Ollinger; Martin; HollingerStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christian BernhoferAnalyzing long-term FLUXNET measurements for reliable ET values across ecosystems types and across climatic regionsBernhofer; Koestner; Knohl; Lindroth; Grünwald; RiedelStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christopher R. SchwalmUsing FLUXNET to diagnose climatic variability of the terrestrial carbon sink from 1948 to 2099Schwalm; Jung; Reichstein; PapaleStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Fred HuemmrichHyperspectral Remote Sensing of Carbon FluxesHuemmrich; Middleton; MargolisStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Guillaume DroletUnderstanding the Environmental Controls on Net and Gross Light-Use Efficiency and Their Temporal Patterns - A Circumboreal StudyDrolet;Margolis;MiddletonStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Hank A. MargolisContrasting the Seasonal Patterns of Fluxes and Environmental Responses Functions for the Circumboreal ForestMargolis;DroletStarted with 1st overview and site selection
ShiLong PiaoEffect of snow change on the C balance in various northern ecosystemsPiao;Ciais;Reichstein;LuyssaertStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Gianluca TramontanaFLUXCOM – an intercomparison study on the estimation of global flux fields from eddy covariance data using empirical up-scaling techniquesReichstein; Papale; Jung; Ryu; Xiao; FisherUnknown
Philippe CiaisEvaluation and estimation of biogeochemical flux model error on multiple time scales based on La Thuile eddy-covariance flux measurementsCiais; PiaoUnknown
Qiang LiuAn Evaluation of GLASS Albedo ProductLiu; Qua; Wang; Liu; Liu; LiangUnknown
Sebastiaan LuyssaertShort term extremes in NEE: drivers and responses in natural ecosystemsLuyssaert; Hollinger; Munger; Stoy; Archibald; Buchmann; Williams; JanssensWithdrawn

These pages show the current information available at about this tower. If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via the data functions at