General Site Information
Site_name:Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1)
Tower_team:PI: Peter Blanken - Blanken@Colorado.EDU - University of Colorado
AncContact: Sean Burns - - University of Colorado
FluxContact: Russell Monson - - The University of Arizona
Affiliate: David Bowling - - University of Utah
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate_Koeppen:Dfc (Subarctic: severe winter, no dry season, cool summer)
Mean Annual Temp (degrees C):1.5
Mean Annual Precip. (mm):800
Years Of Data Available:Ameriflux: 17 (Duration: 1998 - 2014)
FLUXNET: 4 (Duration: 1999 - 2003)
Description:The Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site is located in a subalpine forest ecosystem just below the Continental Divide near Nederland, CO. The site is located at 3050 m elevation, within 600m of the NOAA C1 long-term monitoring station, approximately 8 km east of the Continental Divide. The surrounding subalpine forest is ~97 years old and in a state of aggradation, having recovered from early twentieth century logging (Monson, et al. Global Change Biology (2002), 8 459-478).
Site image(s):
VE Cutouts:Max Zoom :: Mid 1 Zoom :: Mid 2 Zoom :: Min Zoom

Papers relevant to understanding the site
WILLIAM J. SACKS; DAVID S. SCHIMEL; RUSSELL K. MONSON; BOBBY H. BRASWELL. 2006. Model-data synthesis of diurnal and seasonal CO2 fluxes at Niwot Ridge, ColoradoGlobal Change Biology. 12:2, 240-259.Reference
Sun, J., S.P. Oncley, S.P. Burns, B.B. Stephens, D.H. Lenschow, T. Campos, R.K. Monson, D.S. Schimel, W.J. Sacks, S.F.J. De Wekker, C.-T. Lai, B. Lamb, D. Ojima, P.Z. Ellsworth, L.S.L. Sternberg, S. Zhong, C. Clements, D.J.P. Moore, D.E. Anderson, A.S. Watt, J. Hu, M. Tschudi, S. Aulenbach, E. Allwine, and T. Coons. 2010. A Multiscale and Multidisciplinary Investigation Of Ecosystem�Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Over the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91(2): 209-230.Reference
Hibbard, et al. 2005. Biogeochemistry, 73, 29-70Reference
D.S.Schimel; T.G.F. Kittel; S.Running; R.K.Monson; A.A.Turnipseed; D. Anderson. 2002. Carbon sequestration studied in Western U. S. MountainsEOS Transactions. (AGU83)445-49.Reference
C. Yi; R. Li; P. S. Bakwin; A. Desai; D. M. Ricciuto; S.P. Burns; A. A. Turnipseed; S. C. Wofsy; J. W. Munger; K. Wilson; R. K. Monson. 2004. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurementsGeophysical Research Letters. 31:17, L17107.Reference
A. A. Turnipseed; D. E. Anderson; P. D. Blanken; W. M. Baugh; R. K. Monson. 2003. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain Part 1. Canopy and local effectsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 119:1-2, 1-21.Reference
R. K. Monson; J. P. Sparks; T. N. Rosenstiel; L. E. Scott-Denton; T. E. Huxman; P. C. Harley; A. A. Turnipseed; S. P. Burns; B. Backlund; J. Hu. 2005. Climatic influences on net ecosystem CO2 exchange during the transition from wintertime carbon source to springtime carbon sink in a high-elevation, subalpine forestOecologia. 146:1, 130-147.Reference
R. K. Monson; A. A. Turnipseed; J. P. Sparks; P. C. Harley; L. E. Scott-Denton; K. Sparks; T. E. Huxman. 2002. Carbon sequestration in a high-elevation, subalpine forestGlobal Change Biology. 8:5, 459-478.Primary_Citation
T. E. Huxman; A. A. Turnipseed; J. P. Sparks; P. C. Harley; R. K. Monson. 2003. Temperature as a control over ecosystem CO2 fluxes in a high- elevation, subalpine forestOecologia. 134:4, 537-546.Reference
D. F. Hui; S. Q. Wan; B. Su; G. Katul; R. Monson; Y. Q. Luo. 2004. Gap-filling missing data in eddy covariance measurements using multiple imputation (MI) for annual estimationsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 121:1-2, 93-111.Reference
D. R. Bowling; S. P. Burns; T. J. Conway; R. K. Monson; J. W. C. White. 2005. Extensive observations of CO2 carbon isotope content in and above a high-elevation subalpine forestGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 19:3.Reference
P. B. Reich; M. B. Walters; D. S. Ellsworth; J. M. Vose; J. C. Volin; C. Gresham; W. D. Bowman. 1998. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groupsOecologia. 114:4, 471-482.Reference
C. Yi; R. Monson; Z. Zhai; D. E. Anderson; B. Lamb; G. Allwine; A. Turnipseed; S. Burns. 2005. Modeling and measuring the nocturnal drainage flow in a high-elevation, subalpine forest with complex terrainJournal of Geophysical Research. 110:D22303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006282.Reference
A. A. Turnipseed; P. D. Blanken; D. E. Anderson; R. K. Monson. 2002. Energy budget above a high-elevation subalpine forest in complex topographyAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 110:3, 177-201.Reference
Burns, S.P., J. Sun, D.H. Lenschow, S.P. Oncley, B.B. Stephens, C. Yi, D.E. Anderson, J. Hu, and R.K. Monson. 2011. Atmospheric Stability Effects on Wind Fields and Scalar Mixing Within and Just Above a Subalpine Forest in Sloping Terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 138(2): 231-262.Reference
Desai, A.R., D.J.P. Moore, W.K.M. Ahue, P.T.V. Wilkes, S.F.J. De Wekker, B.G. Brooks, T.L. Campos, B.B. Stephens, R.K. Monson, S.P. Burns, T. Quaife, S.M. Aulenbach, and D.S. Schimel. 2011. Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 116(G04009): 1-16.Reference
A. A. Turnipseed; D. E. Anderson; S. Burns; P. D. Blanken; R. K. Monson. 2004. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain Part 2: Mesoscale effectsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 125:3-4, 187-205.Reference
Riveros-Iregui, D.A., J. Hu, S.P. Burns, D.R. Bowling, and R.K. Monson. 2011. An interannual assessment of the relationship between the stable carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration and climate in a high-elevation subalpine forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 116(G2): 1-15.Reference
A. A. Arain; N. Restrepo-Coupe. 2005. Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern CanadaAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 223-241.Reference
J. P. Sparks; J. M. Roberts; R. K. Monson. 2003. Uptake of gaseous organic nitrogen by leaves: a significant global nitrogen transfer processGeophysical Research Letters. 30:23, ASC4-1/ASC4-4.Reference
K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 29-70.Reference
G. Churkina; D. Schimel; B. Braswell; X. Xiao. 2005. Spatial analysis of growing season length control over net ecosystem exchangeGlobal Change Biology. 11:10, 1777-1787.Reference
Daniel A. Sims; Abdullah F. Rahman; Vicente D. Cordova; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Allen H. Goldstein; David Y. Hollinger; Laurent Misson; Russell K. Monson; Hans P. Schmid. 2005. Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean fluxAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:1-2, 1-12.Reference

Fluxnet Proposals Using this Site
Andrew JarvisA data-based cross-site evaluation of (optimal) carbon gain and water use strategies as expressed in FLUXNET eddy covariance dataJarvis;Stauch1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriCalibration of a light use efficiency model using FLUXNET dataTomelleri;Reichstein;Papale;Gorner1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriClimatic effects on the inter‐annual variability of net ecosystem fluxes of North America and EuropeTomelleri; Migliavacca; Carvalhais1st Draft ready
Katrin FleischerEffects of nitrogen cycle dynamics on forest carbon exchange; evaluating a global dynamic vegetation model with FLUXNET dataFleischer; Warlind; van der Molen; Rebel; Arneth; Erisman; Wassen; Smith; Dolman1st Draft ready
Manish VermaUse of FLUXNET data product to evaluate productivity metrics derived from satellite remote sensingRichardson; Verma1st Draft ready
Wenping YuanGlobal Comparison of Light Use Efficiency Models for Vegetation Gross Primary ProductionYuan; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiDevelopment of a Physical-Empirical algorithm for global terrestrial latent heat flux based on FLUXNET data set and MODIS productsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiEvaluation of global terrestrial latent heat flux simulations of 45 CMIP5 models using global eddy covariance observationsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Bo JiangComparison of empirical models for surface daytime net radiation estimationJiang; Wohlfahrt; ZhangManuscript submitted
Gitta LasslopInfluence of the driving temperature for eddy covariance carbon flux partitioningLasslopManuscript submitted
Christian BeerUpscaling mean annual GPP from ecosystem level to the global land surfaceBeer; Tomelleri; Reichstein; Carvalhais; Jung; Papale; Peylin; CiaisPaper published
Christopher WilliamsCarbon Dioxide and Water Flux Responses to Extreme Weather and Climate AnomaliesWilliams; Munger; Hollinger; Stoy; Richardson; Schaefer; Stockli; SchwalmPaper published
Chuixiang YiClimate control of terrestrial carbon sequestrationYi; Ricciuto; MonsonPaper published
Gitta LasslopExtended hyperbolic light response curve including VPD effects to derive GPP estimates mainly based on daytime dataLasslop; Reichstein; PapalePaper published
Guillod BenoîtThe impact of evapotranspiration on convective rainfall eventsGuillod; Seneviratne; Buchmann; Orlowsky; Reichstein; Ciais; TeulingPaper published
Jingfeng XiaoLinking Disturbance and Nitrogen Availability to Carbon and Water Cycling: Improved Upscaling of Carbon and Water Fluxes from Towers to Continental and Global ScalesXiao; Ollinger; ChenPaper published
Katrin FleischerFeedbacks in the Climate SystemFleischer; Dolman; van der Molen; Rebel; ArnethPaper published
Lucas JonesGlobal mapping of net ecosystem CO2 exchange using integrated satellite optical-IR and microwave remote sensing: Algorithm Development for the SMAP Decadal Survey MissionJones; Kimball; Running; Zhang; YiPaper published
Margriet GroenendijkAssessing parameter variability in a photosynthesis model within and between plant functional types using global Fluxnet eddy covariance dataGroenendijk; Dolman; van der Molen; Arneth; Gash; Leuning; Lindroth; Richardson; WohlfahrtPaper published
Margriet GroenendijkSeasonal variation of plant functional type photosynthetic parameters derived directly from global Fluxnet eddy covariance dataGroenendijk; DolmanPaper published
Martin JungIdentifying environmental and biophysical controls of monthly carbon and water fluxesJung; Reichstein; Papale; TomelleriPaper published
Miguel D. MahechaTime scale dependent parameter estimation: principle and example elaboration in an model-eddy covariance data fusion experimentMahecha; Reichstein; Carvalhais; Lasslop; Lange; SeneviratnePaper published
Mirco MigliavaccaSemi-empirical modelling of ecosystem respiration: review, improved algorithm and integration with Earth observation dataMigliavacca; Reichstein; Richardson; LasslopPaper published
Paul StoyEnergy balance closure at global eddy covariance research sites is related to landscape-level surface heterogeneityStoy; IbromPaper published
Rodrigo VargasA mycocentric perspective on environmental factors controlling CO2 fluxes from terrestrial ecosystemsVargas; Baldocchi; Allen; HasselquistPaper published
Sonia SeneviratneMulti-scale land-atmosphere interactionsSeneviratne; Reichstein; Ciais; Buchmann; StockliPaper published
Timothy W. HiltonWhat is the spatial and temporal coherence of flux tower signalsHilton; Davis; Ciais; DesaiPaper published
Dario PapaleA new global spatialized estimate of NEP, GPP and TER and analysis of uncertainty and limiting factors using data driven models and eddy covariance measurementsPapale, Reichstein, TomelleriSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Jingfeng XiaoGlobal Patterns and Interannual Variability of Water Use EfficiencyXiao; ChenSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Martine Janet van de WegCan plant traits be used to scale ecosystem carbon and water fluxesvan de Weg; Dolman; van BodegomSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Miguel D. MahechaEffects of hydrometerorological extremes on land-atmosphere fluxesMahecha; Rammig; PapaleSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Andrew RichardsonExploring relationships among carbon exchange, foliar nitrogen, and canopy albedo at global scalesRichardson; Ollinger; Martin; HollingerStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christian BernhoferAnalyzing long-term FLUXNET measurements for reliable ET values across ecosystems types and across climatic regionsBernhofer; Koestner; Knohl; Lindroth; Grünwald; RiedelStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christopher R. SchwalmUsing FLUXNET to diagnose climatic variability of the terrestrial carbon sink from 1948 to 2099Schwalm; Jung; Reichstein; PapaleStarted with 1st overview and site selection
ShiLong PiaoEffect of snow change on the C balance in various northern ecosystemsPiao;Ciais;Reichstein;LuyssaertStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Gianluca TramontanaFLUXCOM – an intercomparison study on the estimation of global flux fields from eddy covariance data using empirical up-scaling techniquesReichstein; Papale; Jung; Ryu; Xiao; FisherUnknown
Qiang LiuAn Evaluation of GLASS Albedo ProductLiu; Qua; Wang; Liu; Liu; LiangUnknown

These pages show the current information available at about this tower. If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via the data functions at