General Site Information
Site_name:Tonzi Ranch
Tower_team:PI: Dennis Baldocchi - - University of California, Berkeley
FluxContact: Siyan Ma - - University of California, Berkeley
Technician: Joe Verfaillie - - University of California, Berkeley
IGBP:WSA (Woody Savannas)
Climate_Koeppen:Csa (Mediterranean: mild with dry, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temp (degrees C):15.8
Mean Annual Precip. (mm):559
Years Of Data Available:Ameriflux: 15 (Duration: 2001 - 2015)
FLUXNET: 6 (Duration: 2001 - 2006)
Description:Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Tonzi Ranch site is classified as an oak savanna woodland on privately owned land. Managed by local rancher, Russell Tonzi, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. The overstory is dominated by blue oak trees (40% of total vegetation) with intermittent grey pine trees (3 trees/ha). Understory species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. These two distinctive layers operate in and out from one another. Growing season of the understory is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May. In contrast, the deciduous blue oak trees are dormant during the rainy winter months and reach maximum LAI in April. The blue oak ecosystem rings the Great Central Valley of California, inhabiting the lower reaches of the Sierra Nevada foothills.
Acknowledgment:This research was supported in part by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER63638
Site image(s): -
VE Cutouts:Max Zoom :: Mid 1 Zoom :: Mid 2 Zoom :: Min Zoom

Papers relevant to understanding the site
L. K. Xu; D. D. Baldocchi. 2003. Seasonal trends in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperatureTree Physiology. 23:13, 865-877.Reference
Chen Q, Gong P, Baldocchi D, Tian YQ (2007) Estimating basal area and stem volume for individual trees from lidar data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73:1355-1365Reference
Miller, G. R., X. Chen, Y. Rubin, S. Ma, and D. D. Baldocchi (2010), Groundwater uptake by woody vegetation in a semiarid oak savanna, Water Resour. Res., 46(10),Reference
Chen XY, Rubin Y, Ma SY, Baldocchi D (2008) Observations and stochastic modeling of soil moisture control on evapotranspiration in a Californian oak savanna. Water Resources Research 44Reference
Ryu Y, Nilson T, Kobayashi H, Sonnentag O, Law BE, Baldocchi DD (2010) On the correct estimation of effective leaf area index: Does it reveal information on clumping effects? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150:463-472Reference
Baldocchi, D., Q. Chen, X. Chen, S. Ma, G. Miller, Y. Ryu, J. Xiao, R. Wenk, and J. Battles (2010), The Dynamics of Energy, Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii) Savanna in California, USA, in Ecosystem Function in Global Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales, edited by M. J. H. a. N. P. Hanan, CRC/Taylor and Francis.Reference
L. H. Gu; E. M. Falge; T. Boden; D. D. Baldocchi; T. A. Black; S. R. Saleska; T. Suni; S. B. Verma; T. Vesala; S. C. Wofsy; L. K. Xu. 2005. Objective threshold determination for nighttime eddy flux filteringAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 179-197.Reference
Ma, S., D. D. Baldocchi, S. Mambelli, and T. E. Dawson (2011), Are temporal variations of leaf traits responsible for seasonal and inter-annual variability in ecosystem CO2 exchange?, Functional Ecology, 25(1), 258-270.Reference
Baldocchi, D. D., L. Xu, and N. Kiang (2004), How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought, and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 123(1-2), 13-39.Primary_Citation
Kobayashi, H., D. D. Baldocchi, Y. Ryu, Q. Chen, S. Ma, J. L. Osuna, and S. L. Ustin (2012), Modeling energy and carbon fluxes in a heterogeneous oak woodland: A three-dimensional approach, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 152, 83-100.Reference
Xu, L. and Baldocchi, D., 2003. Seasonal trends in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolaonged summer drought and high temperature. Tree Physiology, 23: 865-877.Reference
Curiel Yuste J, Ma S, Baldocchi D (2010) Plant-soil interactions and acclimation to temperature of microbial-mediated soil respiration may affect predictions of soil CO2 efflux. BiogeochemistryReference
J. Kim; Q. Guo; D.D. Baldocchi; M.Y. Leclerc; L. Xu; H.P. Schmid. 2006. Upscaling fluxes from tower to landscape: Overlaying flux footprints on high-resolution (IKONOS) images of vegetation coverAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 136:3-4, 132-146.Reference
Chen Q, Gong P, Baldocchi D, Xie G (2007) Filtering airborne laser scanning data with morphological methods. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73:175-185Reference
Chen Q, Baldocchi D, Gong P, Dawson T (2008) Modeling radiation and photosynthesis of a heterogeneous savanna woodland landscape with a hierarchy of model complexities. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148:1005-1020Reference
Raz-Yaseef, N., L. Koteen, and D. D. Baldocchi (2013), Coarse root distribution of a semi-arid oak savanna estimated with ground penetrating radar, Journal of Geophysical Research: BiogeosciencesReference
Ma, S., Baldocchi, D.D., Xu, L., & Hehn, T. (2007). Inter-annual variability in carbon dioxide exchange of an oak/grass savanna and open grassland in California. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 147, 157-171Primary_Citation
Baldocchi D, Ma S, Rambal S, Ourcival JM, Limousin JM, Misson L, Pereira J, Papale D (2010) On the Differential Advantages of Evergreenness and Deciduousness in Mediterranean Oak Woodlands: A Flux Perspective. Ecological Applications in pressReference
Daniel A. Sims; Abdullah F. Rahman; Vicente D. Cordova; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Allen H. Goldstein; David Y. Hollinger; Laurent Misson; Russell K. Monson; Hans P. Schmid. 2005. Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean fluxAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:1-2, 1-12.Reference
Jianwu Tang; Dennis D. Baldocchi. 2005. Spatial-temporal variation in soil respiration in an oak-grass savanna ecosystem in California and its partitioning into autotrophic and heterotrophic componentsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 183-207.Reference
L. Xu; D.D. Baldocchi; J. Tang. 2004. How soil moisture, rain pulses, and growth alter the response of ecosystem respiration to temperatureGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 18:4, GB4002 10.1029/2004GB002281.Reference
Baldocchi DD, Xu L (2007) What limits evaporation from Mediterranean oak woodlands - The supply of moisture in the soil, physiological control by plants or the demand by the atmosphere? Advances in Water Resources 30:2113-2122Reference
Fisher JB, Baldocchi DD, Misson L, Dawson TE, Goldstein AH (2007) What the towers don't see at night: nocturnal sap flow in trees and shrubs at two AmeriFlux sites in California. Tree Physiology 27:597-610Reference
Baldocchi D, Chen Q, Chen X, Ma S, Miller G, Ryu Y, Xiao J, Wenk R, Battles J (2010) The Dynamics of Energy, Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii) Savanna in California, USA. In: Hanan MJHaNP (ed) Ecosystem Function in Global Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales. CRC/Taylor and FrancisReference
Baldocchi, D., Q. Chen, X. Chen, S. Ma, G. Miller, Y. Ryu, J. Xiao, R. Wenk, and J. Battles (2010), The Dynamics of Energy, Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii) Savanna in California, USA, in Ecosystem Function in Global Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales, edited by M. J. H. a. N. P. Hanan, CRC/Taylor and Francis.Primary_Citation
Ryu Y, Sonnentag O, Nilson T, Vargas R, Kobayashi H, Wenk R, Baldocchi DD (2010) How to quantify tree leaf area index in an open savanna ecosystem: A multi-instrument and multi-model approach. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150:63-76Reference
K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 29-70.Reference
Hibbard, et al. 2005. Biogeochemistry, 73, 29-70Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; L. K. Xu; N. Kiang. 2004. How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought, and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak-grass savanna and an annual grasslandAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 123:1-2, 13-39.Reference
J. Tang; D. Baldocchi; Y. Qi; L. Xu. 2003. Assessing soil CO2 efflux using continuous measurements of CO2 profiles in soils with small solid-state sensorsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 118:3-4, 207-220.Reference

Fluxnet Proposals Using this Site
Andrew JarvisA data-based cross-site evaluation of (optimal) carbon gain and water use strategies as expressed in FLUXNET eddy covariance dataJarvis;Stauch1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriCalibration of a light use efficiency model using FLUXNET dataTomelleri;Reichstein;Papale;Gorner1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriClimatic effects on the inter‐annual variability of net ecosystem fluxes of North America and EuropeTomelleri; Migliavacca; Carvalhais1st Draft ready
Ian RossInfluence of climate soil and vegetation on rain pulses responses in seasonal drought ecosystems or across different ecosystemsRoss;Misson;Carrara;Litvak1st Draft ready
Manish VermaUse of FLUXNET data product to evaluate productivity metrics derived from satellite remote sensingRichardson; Verma1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiDevelopment of a Physical-Empirical algorithm for global terrestrial latent heat flux based on FLUXNET data set and MODIS productsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiEvaluation of global terrestrial latent heat flux simulations of 45 CMIP5 models using global eddy covariance observationsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Youngryel RyuSpatial and temporal variations of gross primary productivity and evaporation over the global land from 2000 to 2009 using MODIS and FLUXNETRyu; Baldocchi1st Draft ready
Bo JiangComparison of empirical models for surface daytime net radiation estimationJiang; Wohlfahrt; ZhangManuscript submitted
Rodrigo VargasLinking photosynthesis with soil respiration: diurnal patterns across large geographical distancesVargas; Baldocchi;GuManuscript submitted
Christian BeerUpscaling mean annual GPP from ecosystem level to the global land surfaceBeer; Tomelleri; Reichstein; Carvalhais; Jung; Papale; Peylin; CiaisPaper published
Christopher WilliamsCarbon Dioxide and Water Flux Responses to Extreme Weather and Climate AnomaliesWilliams; Munger; Hollinger; Stoy; Richardson; Schaefer; Stockli; SchwalmPaper published
Chuixiang YiClimate control of terrestrial carbon sequestrationYi; Ricciuto; MonsonPaper published
Dennis BaldocchiHow Day and Night Sampling Minimizes Autocorrelation between Canopy Photosynthesis and Ecosystem RespirationBaldocchi; SturtevantPaper published
Gitta LasslopExtended hyperbolic light response curve including VPD effects to derive GPP estimates mainly based on daytime dataLasslop; Reichstein; PapalePaper published
Guillod BenoîtThe impact of evapotranspiration on convective rainfall eventsGuillod; Seneviratne; Buchmann; Orlowsky; Reichstein; Ciais; TeulingPaper published
Jingfeng XiaoLinking Disturbance and Nitrogen Availability to Carbon and Water Cycling: Improved Upscaling of Carbon and Water Fluxes from Towers to Continental and Global ScalesXiao; Ollinger; ChenPaper published
Lucas JonesGlobal mapping of net ecosystem CO2 exchange using integrated satellite optical-IR and microwave remote sensing: Algorithm Development for the SMAP Decadal Survey MissionJones; Kimball; Running; Zhang; YiPaper published
Martin JungIdentifying environmental and biophysical controls of monthly carbon and water fluxesJung; Reichstein; Papale; TomelleriPaper published
Miguel D. MahechaTime scale dependent parameter estimation: principle and example elaboration in an model-eddy covariance data fusion experimentMahecha; Reichstein; Carvalhais; Lasslop; Lange; SeneviratnePaper published
Mirco MigliavaccaSemi-empirical modelling of ecosystem respiration: review, improved algorithm and integration with Earth observation dataMigliavacca; Reichstein; Richardson; LasslopPaper published
Paul StoyEnergy balance closure at global eddy covariance research sites is related to landscape-level surface heterogeneityStoy; IbromPaper published
Philippe CiaisWhat the eddy-covariance flux measurements tell us about prior errors in CO2-flux inversion schemesChevallier; Ciais; Maignan; Wang; ReichsteinPaper published
Rodrigo VargasA mycocentric perspective on environmental factors controlling CO2 fluxes from terrestrial ecosystemsVargas; Baldocchi; Allen; HasselquistPaper published
Sonia SeneviratneMulti-scale land-atmosphere interactionsSeneviratne; Reichstein; Ciais; Buchmann; StockliPaper published
Timothy W. HiltonWhat is the spatial and temporal coherence of flux tower signalsHilton; Davis; Ciais; DesaiPaper published
Dario PapaleA new global spatialized estimate of NEP, GPP and TER and analysis of uncertainty and limiting factors using data driven models and eddy covariance measurementsPapale, Reichstein, TomelleriSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Jingfeng XiaoGlobal Patterns and Interannual Variability of Water Use EfficiencyXiao; ChenSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Miguel D. MahechaEffects of hydrometerorological extremes on land-atmosphere fluxesMahecha; Rammig; PapaleSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Andrew RichardsonExploring relationships among carbon exchange, foliar nitrogen, and canopy albedo at global scalesRichardson; Ollinger; Martin; HollingerStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Barbara KoestnerWater vapour flux partitioning related to climate, global ecosystem types and vegetation structureKoestner; Bernhofer; Knohl; LindrothStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christian BernhoferAnalyzing long-term FLUXNET measurements for reliable ET values across ecosystems types and across climatic regionsBernhofer; Koestner; Knohl; Lindroth; Grünwald; RiedelStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christopher R. SchwalmUsing FLUXNET to diagnose climatic variability of the terrestrial carbon sink from 1948 to 2099Schwalm; Jung; Reichstein; PapaleStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Dennis BaldocchiMeasuring Terrestrial Biosphere Metabolism with a Global Flux NetworkBaldocchi;Reichstein;Papale;LawStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Sonia WhartonExamining the effects of teleconnection patterns on ecosystem flux exchange at FLUXNET towers along the Pacific RimWharton; Vargas; FalkStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Gianluca TramontanaFLUXCOM – an intercomparison study on the estimation of global flux fields from eddy covariance data using empirical up-scaling techniquesReichstein; Papale; Jung; Ryu; Xiao; FisherUnknown
Philippe CiaisEvaluation and estimation of biogeochemical flux model error on multiple time scales based on La Thuile eddy-covariance flux measurementsCiais; PiaoUnknown
Qiang LiuAn Evaluation of GLASS Albedo ProductLiu; Qua; Wang; Liu; Liu; LiangUnknown

These pages show the current information available at about this tower. If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via the data functions at